From: Alberto Barbati (abarbati_at_[hidden])
Date: 2002-12-30 05:18:41
Gennaro Prota wrote:
> Hmm... frankly I haven't used it anymore. I'm under the impression
> they have fixed it now, but last time I checked it had a lot of bugs.
> It was easy, for instance, to end up including the same file twice if
> it was reached through different paths (e.g.: #include "subdir/file.h"
> in A.cpp and #include "file.h" in subdir/file2.h). Usually one doesn't
> notice the error, because he uses both the pragma and the canonical
> include guard, but that means of course that the speed gain comes to
> nothing. Probably it was VC++ 5.0 though.
You are missing the point here. "#pragma once" is not really
"functional", in the sense that it's not (or should not be) used
*alone* to realize the "include me once" effect. That effect is better
achieved by the canonical include guards that should be used anyway (and
*will* be used anyway in portable code).
"#pragma once" is just an optimization issue. If a file is included a
second time in the same TU, a dumb compiler will re-open it and give it
to the preprocessor who strips its contents entirely because the include
guard is already defined. Re-opening + preprocessing takes little but
With the "#pragma once" the programmer just gives an hint to the
compiler that re-opening is unnecessary and ignores the #include
directive immediately. You see, there *is* a speed gain even in the
presence of canonical include guards.
Of course, a smarter compiler like g++ will recognize the canonical
include guards and deduce that re-opening is unnecessary without any
explicit hint given by the programmer.
> [...] In effect, the whole story about file inclusion should be
> the other way round: any source file is included at most once for each
> TU, unless the programmer requires otherwise ;-)
I agree, but we can't give the burden of avoiding multiple inclusions to
the "user". Realistically, with large projects such intent is hardly
achievable by anyone.
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