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From: Christopher Kohlhoff (chris_kohlhoff_at_[hidden])
Date: 2004-09-13 17:50:03

Hi Carlo,

 --- Carlo Wood <carlo_at_[hidden]> wrote:
> Can someone explain to me how it is possible that libACE doesn't use
> IO completion ports by default?! (Or at all) :)

ACE does support IO completion ports, it just does it through the
Proactor pattern. I.e. ACE supports two different patterns for event
demultiplexing: Reactor and Proactor.

> Next question that comes to mind: is asio creating any threads itself
> in order to achieve its normal functionality (on windows)?

Yes, it has an internal thread for doing timers and simulating
asynchronous connect/accept. However asio will *never* deliver a
callback to application code from such a thread. There is a rule that
callbacks will only be invoked from a thread that calls demuxer::run().

> - The timer resolution of 1 second is too low (see below). Would you
> be willing to revise/change that part of the interface?

The timers use an asio::time class that includes both a seconds and a
microseconds component. I opted to just show the seconds in the
tutorial for simplicity.

> [ A resolution of 1 second means that you can request 1 second and
> get
> 0 seconds (ie, you call now() 1 microsecond before it would return
> the next integer, add 1 and request the time out with that).
> A better timer interface, one that I use myself in my networking
> library, is to always work with "times" as offsets relative to a
> function returning 'now()'. The value returned by 'now()' should
> not change in between calls to the system function that actually
> waits for events (it is only updated once per mainloop loop thus).
> When requesting a time event you would for example do:
> asio::timer t(d, seconds(5));
> instead of
> asio::timer t(d, asio::time::now() + 5);
> The advantage is that if you request 1 second this way, you will
> get a much more accurate 'second' because internally the clock
> has microsecond accuracy (ie, select(2) on linux) or at least
> milisecond accuracy.

First, it has been my experience that, in network applications, working
with "absolute" times (i.e. relative to the epoch) is a more useful

Further, as I said above, the timers do also use microseconds. So to
set a timer for half a second from now:

  asio::timer t(d, asio::time::now() + asio::time(0, 500000));

or to "bump" a timer along by a further .1 seconds say, you would go:

  t.expiry(t.expiry() + asio::time(0, 100000));

> - What happens when asio::demuxer::run is running
> (and waiting/sleeping for events) and then the
> application receives a signal?

Good question :) At the moment I do not do any special handling of
signals (and in general I avoid their use), and it's up to the program
to do its own signal handling. It's something on my todo list.

> - Is it possible to treat signals as events that
> are dispatched from the mainloop?
> If not, then I think direct support for this has to be added.
> A signal handler can be called at almost any moment in the code
> and can therefore not use system resources, or shared resources,
> of any kind. You can't even have it wait for a mutex. Basically
> all a signal handler can do is set an atomic flag that there has
> been a signal.

The approach I have been considering is to have an internal thread
doing a sigwait, and then have it post the events through the demuxer.
Once doing this I would consider that all signals should be treated
like other events and that they should not have any special effect on
the demuxer (although they might have a default event handler which
calls demuxer.interrupt()).

> - asio::thread doesn't belong in the library
> (its a handy thing, but just doesn't belong HERE).

I totally agree. Initially I took a purist approach and did not provide
any thread class, instead telling people to use something else, like
boost::thread or ACE_Task. However, one of my goals was to allow people
to use asio without linking to any non-system libraries (i.e.
header-files only) to minimise barriers to using asio, and neither
boost::thread nor ACE fit the bill here. And as spawning a thread to
run the demuxer was such a common requirement, a minimal asio::thread
was created.


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