
BoostCommit : 
From: asutton_at_[hidden]
Date: 20070612 12:31:37
Author: asutton
Date: 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
New Revision: 7002
URL: http://svn.boost.org/trac/boost/changeset/7002
Log:
Wrote a guide for directed graphs. Added some diagrams for both
directed and undirected graphs and a small script for building
them.
Added:
sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/build.sh
sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/files.dot
sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/movie.dot
sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/reverse.dot
Text files modified:
sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_directed.qbk  365 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_undirected.qbk  67 +++++
2 files changed, 410 insertions(+), 22 deletions()
Modified: sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_directed.qbk
==============================================================================
 sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_directed.qbk (original)
+++ sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_directed.qbk 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
@@ 5,6 +5,367 @@
/ file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
/]
[section Working with Directed Graphs]
Blah blah blah...
+[section Directed Graphs]
+Like the previous section, here we take a look at how to solve different
+types graph problems using the Boost.Graph library. In this case however,
+the problems being addressed are better modeled with directed graphs. A
+directed graph (also a /digraph/) is one in which edges can only be traversed
+in a specific direction.
+
+In this section we are concerned with /dependency graphs/. A dependency graph
+describes a relationship between two entities in which one (/source/) requires
+a second (/target/). The source is said to be dependant upon the target.
+Dependency graphs arise in many, many realworld situations such as source
+code analysis, software installation, "techtrees" in computer games, etc.
+In this example, we will look at a common dependency graph: dependencies
+between software documents and build targets.
+
+[h3 File Dependencies]
+If you've ever typed `make` and wondered how the program decides the order
+tasks to build, then this tutorial is for you. The make software relies on
+dependency information explicitly encoded into Makefiles. Binaries (executable
+programs and libraries) depend on sets of source files. Source files, which
+implement program features, depend on header files, which expose type and
+function declarations. These, in turn, might depend on generated source files
+generated by `lex`, `yacc` or any other of an assortment of codegenerating
+tools. These dependencies can be modeled with a directed graph.
+
+For this example, we're actually going to use some of the files that actually
+implement the examples described in this user's guide. Their dependencies are
+shown in figure 1. Path names have been omitted for readability.
+
+[$../images/files.png]
+
+From this graph, it should be relatively easy to see that the build should
+start at the bottom and proceed "upwards" with the executable programs being
+built last  maybe. There are actually two different approaches to bulding
+these programs:
+
+# One at a time. This is probably what you're used to seeing. The compiler
+builds file A, followed by file B, and finally file C.
+# In parallel. If you're lucky enough to have a multiprocessor computer
+available to you we might be able to process (compile) a number of different
+files at the same time by distributing the tasks to different processors.
+
+The solution to both of these problems is addressed by topologically sorting
+the graph. This provies the schedule of files to be processed by ordering
+the vertices based on their dependencies.
+
+A third problem we might encounter is that of cycles in the dependency
+graph. Cycles are bad since topological sorts will not work in their presence.
+
+[h4 Makefiles and Graphs]
+The first step in implementing a makeordering for source files is acquiring
+some data. For this example, we our program will parse files in a stripped down,
+Makefilelike format. The input looks something like something like this.
+
+[pre
+undirected_graph.hpp : adjacency_list.hpp
+directed_graph.hpp : adjacency_list.hpp
+movies.hpp : undirected_graph.hpp
+movies.cpp : movies.hpp tokenizer.hpp
+kevin_bacon.cpp : movies.hpp visitors.hpp breadth_first_search.hpp
+kevin_bacon.exe : movies.cpp kevin_bacon.cpp
+build_order.cpp : directed_graph.hpp topological_sort.hpp
+build_order.exe : build_order.cpp
+]
+
+Obviously, we're going to have to build a parser for this input format. Just as
+before our program starts by defining aliases for commonly used template types.
+
+ struct Target;
+
+ typedef boost::directed_graph<Target> Graph;
+ typedef Graph::vertex_descriptor Vertex;
+ typedef Graph::edge_descriptor Edge;
+
+In this graph, vertex properties are encapsulated in a `Target` structure. For
+this application, a target is any named file that might appear in the dependency
+graph. Unlike the previous example, we really don't have any need for edge propreties,
+so we can simply omit that template parameter. The `Target` is defined as:
+
+ struct Target
+ {
+ int index;
+ std::string name;
+ };
+
+[note
+If you think you're seeing some similarities between the previous example, and this
+one... just wait. There are a number of common properties and tasks in many graph
+related problems such as indexing vertices, providing name labels, etc. Pay special
+attention to the method of adding vertices to the graph  the mapping of a unique
+name to a vertex is nearly ubiquitous in the setup of graph problems.
+]
+
+Likewise, we'll go ahead and predefine a property map that will be used later.
+We also need a mapping of target name to vertex so we don't duplicate vertices
+and have a convenient lookup tool later on.
+
+ typedef boost::property_map<Graph::type, int Target::*>::type TargetIndexMap;
+ typedef std::map<std::string, Vertex> TargetMap;
+
+We can now start building a program to parse the input data and build a dependency
+graph.
+
+ using namespace std;
+ using namespace boost;
+
+ int main()
+ {
+ typedef char_separator<char> separator;
+ typedef tokenizer<separator> tokenizer;
+
+ Graph grapg;
+ TargetMap targets;
+
+ for(string line; getline(cin, line); ) {
+ // skip comment and blank lines
+ if(line[0] == '#'  line.empty()) {
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ // split the string on the dependency
+ size_t index = line.find_first_of(':');
+ if(index == string::npos) {
+ continue;
+ }
+ string target = trim_copy(line.substr(0, index));
+ string deps = trim_copy(line.substr(index + 1));
+
+ // add the target to the build graph
+ Vertex u = add_target(graph, targets, target);
+
+ // tokenize the dependencies
+ separator sep(" \t");
+ tokenizer tok(deps, sep);
+ tokenizer::iterator i = tok.begin(), j = tok.end();
+ for( ; i != j; ++i) {
+ string dep = *i;
+
+ // add this dependency as a target
+ Vertex v = add_target(graph, targets, dep);
+
+ // add the edge
+ add_dependency(graph, u, v);
+ }
+ }
+
+ // ...to be continued...
+
+This is a fairly large chunk of code that implements input parsing and graph construction
+with the help of the `add_target()` and `add_dependency()` functions. Essentially, this
+snippet creates a vertex (target) for each file named in the input file. A dependency
+edge is added between the first target (preceeding the ':' character) and each subsequent
+target (white space separated list following the ':'). The `add_target()` and `add_dependency()`
+method are implemented as:
+
+ Vertex add_target(Graph& graph, TargetMap& targets, const string& name)
+ {
+ Vertex v;
+ TargetMap::iterator it;
+ bool inserted;
+ tie(it, inserted) = targets.insert(make_pair(name, Vertex()));
+ if(inserted) {
+ v = add_vertex(graph);
+ it>second = v;
+
+ graph[v].index = num_vertices(graph)  1;
+ graph[v].name = name;
+ }
+ else {
+ v = it>second;
+ }
+ return v;
+ }
+
+You may notice that the `add_target()` function is nearly lineforline identical to the
+`add_actor()` function in the previous example. This is no coincidence  both functions
+do exactly the same thing. They associate a vertex with a unique name and assign it an
+index that we can use later for various graph algorithms.
+
+ Edge add_dependency(Graph& graph, Vertex u, Vertex v)
+ {
+ return add_edge(v, u, graph).first;
+ }
+
+The `add_dependency()` method is considerably more terse than its undirected counter part,
+but essentially does the same thing. There is one very important difference, however:
+the direction of the edge is reversed to create a subtly different graph. Although
+the method is called to indicate that vertex `u` dependes on vertex `v`, the added edge
+actually indicates that vertex `v` satisfies the dependency of vertex `u`. In fact, this
+is the reverse of the original graph and is shown in Figure 2.
+
+[$../images/reverse.png]
+
+[h4 Obtaining the Make Order]
+We are now ready to compute the make order by running a topological sort. Thanks to a
+canned implementation, this is trivial.
+
+ int main()
+ {
+ // ...continued from above...
+
+ TargetIndexMap indices = get(&Target::index, graph);
+
+ typedef list<Vertex> MakeOrder;
+ MakeOrder order;
+ topological_sort(graph, front_inserter(order), vertex_index_map(indices));
+
+ BuildOrder::iterator i = order.begin(), j = order.end();
+ for( ; i != j; ++i) {
+ cout << graph[*i] << "\n";
+ }
+ }
+
+The `topological_sort()` algorithm takes an output iterator as the second parameter.
+Here, we use a standard front insertion iterator to prepend each target to the make
+order. The `vertex_index_map()` named parameter is also required for the implementation.
+After computation, we simply print the ordering to standard output.
+
+[h4 parallel Compilation]
+What if we have multiple processors available? Surely there is a way to determine if
+we can compile several independent files simultaneously, thereby reducing the overall
+build time. In fact, there is. Consider rephrasing the question to "what is the earliest
+time that a file can be built assuming that an unlimited number of files can be built
+at the same time?". In our simplified example, the only criteria for when a file can
+be built is that it has no dependencies (i.e., in edges). Further simplifiying the
+example, we assume that each file takes the same amount of time to build (1 time unit).
+
+For parallel compilation, we can build all files with zero dependencies in the first
+time unit at the same time. For each file, the time at which it can be built is one
+more than the maximum build time of the files on which it depends. In this example,
+`adjacency_list.hpp` is one of the files that will compile first (in parallel).
+The `directed_graph.hpp` file will compile in the second time step, and `build_order.cpp`
+in the third.
+
+To implement this, we need a vector that represents the time slots in which each vertex
+will be built. By visiting the vertices in topological order, we ensure that we can
+assigned the correct time slot to each vertex since values "propogate" down the ordering.
+Just for fun, we'll merge the time ordering with the output so we can see a) the order
+in which each file is built and b) the time slot it could be built in.
+
+ int main()
+ {
+ // ...continued from above...
+ vector<int> time(num_vertices(graph), 0);
+ BuildOrder::iterator i = order.begin(), j = order.end();
+ for( ; i != j; ++i) {
+ int slot = 1;
+ Graph::in_edge_iterator j, k;
+ for(tie(j, k) = in_edges(*i, graph); j != k; ++j) {
+ Vertex v = source(*j, graph);
+ slot = std::max(time[graph[v].index], slot);
+ }
+ time[g[*i].index] = slot + 1;
+
+ cout << g[*i].name << "\t[" << time[g[*i].index] << "]\n";
+ }
+ }
+
+This is a code may be a little dense, but demonstrates two important aspects of
+the Boost.Graph library. First this demonstrates the importantance of vertex
+indices. Despite their instability with mutable graphs, many (most?) graph algorithms
+use vertex indices to efficiently associate extra data with a vertex. In fact, this
+approach is so ubiquitous in the examples that it leads many to believe the
+`vertex_descriptor` is always the index of a vertex.
+
+[warning
+A `vertex_descriptor` is *not* its index in the graphs container of vectors!
+]
+
+The second important aspect this demonstrates is the construction of an /external
+property/ for vertices. Although we don't use the `time` vector in any additional
+computations, we could easily turn it into a property map for use with other
+algorithms.
+
+The output might something like this:
+
+[pre
+$ ./make_order < files
+topological_sort.hpp [0]
+breadth_first_search.hpp [0]
+visitors.hpp [0]
+tokenizer.hpp [0]
+adjacency_list.hpp [0]
+directed_graph.hpp [1]
+build_order.cpp [2]
+build_order.exe [3]
+undirected_graph.hpp [1]
+movies.hpp [2]
+kevin_bacon.cpp [3]
+movies.cpp [3]
+kevin_bacon.exe [4]
+]
+
+Although it probably won't since I doctored the tabbing for display purposes.
+
+[h4 Finding Cycles]
+Admittedly, cycles in dependency graphs for software probably don't occur so often
+that we need to develop special software to find them. However, if the dependency
+graph is big (think about all the source code, binaries, data files and thier
+dependencies that constitute a typical Linux distribution), then its possible that
+cycles creep into the graph. It might be nice to determine if there is such a cycle
+before actually trying to build it.
+
+To do this, we are going to provide a customized visitor for a depthfirst search (DFS).
+Just like the custom visitors in our undirected graph examples, we overload a visitor
+event (here, the `back_edge` event) to indicate that a cycle has been found. Using the
+same setup as before, our visitor follows:
+
+ struct CycleDetector : public dfs_visitor<>
+ {
+ CycleDetector(bool& c)
+ : has_cycle(c)
+ {}
+
+ template <class Edge, class Graph>
+ void back_edge(Edge, Graph&)
+ {
+ has_cycle = true;
+ }
+
+ bool& has_cycle;
+ };
+
+ CycleDetector detect_cycles(bool& c)
+ { return CycleDetector(c); }
+
+That's it... When the `back_edge()` method is called, we know that a cycle exists
+in the graph. This literally indicates that there is an edge to a vertex that we
+have already visited, hence: a cycle. We also provide a helper function that
+instantiates the visitor.
+
+Using the cycledetecting visitor is just as easy as before. After constructing the
+graph, we would find the following in the `main()` program.
+
+ int main()
+ {
+ // ...continued from above...
+
+ TargetIndexMap indices = get(&Target::index, g);
+
+ bool cycle = false;
+ depth_first_search(g,
+ vertex_index_map(indices).
+ visitor(detect_cycles(cycle)));
+ cout << "has cycle: " << cycle << "\n";
+ }
+
+Unfortunately, our test input file doesn't currently contain any cycles  a sign of
+good engineering  so we'll have to add one. Add the following lines to the input
+to create a completely superfluous cycle.
+
+[pre
+movies.exe : kevin_bacon.exe
+kevin_bacon.exe : movies.exe
+]
+
+Running the program on the modified input should yield:
+
+[pre
+$ ./cycle < files
+has cycle: 1
+]
+
[endsect]
\ No newline at end of file
Modified: sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_undirected.qbk
==============================================================================
 sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_undirected.qbk (original)
+++ sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/guide_undirected.qbk 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
@@ 5,34 +5,61 @@
/ file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
/]
[section Working with Undirected Graphs]
+[section Undirected Graphs]
This section could be called "Things to do with Undirected Graphs" since its goal
is to provide a number of concrete examples of how undirected graphs can be used
to solve problems  and more specifically how to implement them using Boost.Graph.
[h2 Citation Graphs]
+In this section, our example revolves around a particular type of /social network/.
+A social network is a graph that models the relationships between people. Specifically,
+in this example we are looking at a graph that connects costars of films.
+
+[h3 CoStar Graphs]
The first example problem we want to look at is the "Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon"
problem. Mathematicians might be more familiar with this is as "Erdos Numbering".
This problem is based on a network of relationships between people. In the Six
Degrees problem, two actors are related if they appear in the same movie. With
Erdos, two people are related if they collaborated on a published article. This
type of network is often called a /citation/ graph (or network) and is trivially
represented using an undirected graph.
+problem. In this problem, two actors are related if they appear in the same movie,
+which can be trivially represented using an undirected graph.
For the Six Degrees problem, we define a citation graph such that each vertex in
the graph represents an actor, and each edge connects two actors if and only if
they appear in the same movie. There are actually two different problems that we
can solve:
+they appear in the same movie. Consider the example in Figure 1. Here we have
+ten relatively wellknown actors and the movies in which they appear together 
+and yes, Kevin Bacon is actually in /Animal House/ (he plays a snotty Omega pledge
+in his film debut).
+
+[$../images/movie.png]
+
+Although this is a relatively simple graph, it isn't hard to imagine that it
+scales up fairly quickly. Consider what would happen if we added all of Kevin
+Bacon's costars from major motion picture in which he starred  and all of
+their costars. It's not hard to imagine that only three iterations might
+actually encompass all of Hollywood and beyond (Bollywood?). What can we do
+with these graphs?
+
+For starters, we can identify two different problems of the "Six Degrees".
+
# How far is every actor in the graph from Kevin Bacon? This gives us the number
of steps between Mr. Bacon and any other actor.
# What is the fastest way to travel (along the citation graph) from Kevin Bacon
+of steps between Mr. Bacon and any other actor. The distances from a central actor
+can give clues to the size (especially the diameter) of a graph.
+# What is the "fastest" way to travel (along the costar graph) from Kevin Bacon
to any other actor? This is more commonly known as the "Six Degrees of Kevin
Bacon Game" and was actually discussed (on air) by its inventors on MTV's "The Jon
Stewart Show" (go figure).
+
These are actually two different instances of the same problem and can be solved
using the same algorithm  a simple breadthfirst search (BFS).
[h3 Actors, Movies, and Graphs]
+[note
+The term "six degrees of separation" refers to the total distance one must travel
+in a social network to get from one's self to any other person in the network.
+This notion is supported through a number of social experiments, namely that of
+Stanley Milgram who coined the term "small world" with respect to social networks.
+His experiment showed that Americans are connected, on average by six friendships.
+The notion of a "small world" social network is now nearly synonymous with a
+graph having an average degree of connectivity (formally known as its /mean geodesic
+distance/) of just six steps.
+]
+
+[h4 Actors, Movies, and Graphs]
Our program begins by inlcuding required headers and creating some convenient
type aliases.
@@ 129,7 +156,7 @@
using namespace std;
using namespace boost;
 void build_citation_graph(istream& is, Graph& graph, ActorMap&)
+ void build_costar_graph(istream& is, Graph& graph, ActorMap&)
{
// pull all of the data from std in.
for(string line; getline(is, line); ) {
@@ 229,12 +256,12 @@
{
Graph graph;
ActorMap actors;
 build_citation_graph(cin, graph, actors);
+ build_costar_graph(cin, graph, actors);
// ...to be continued...
}
[h3 Distance To Kevin Bacon]
+[h4 Distance To Kevin Bacon]
Now, all we have left to do is assign distances to Kevin Bacon. To do this, we're going
to use a breadthfirst search (starting from Kevin Bacon) and simply record the "depth"
of each vertex as the distance from Kevin to every other actor. To do this, we're going
@@ 346,7 +373,7 @@
2 : Eddie Murphy
]
[h3 The Kevin Bacon Game]
+[h4 The Kevin Bacon Game]
Using the above algorithm we can find how far away each actor is from Kevin Bacon, but what
if we want to know how to get there. For example, we know that Dan Akroyd is three steps away
so what are the movies? We could look at the input file, but that won't really give us any
@@ 428,7 +455,7 @@
Graph graph;
ActorMap actors;
 build_citation_graph(cin, graph, actors);
+ build_costar_graph(cin, graph, actors);
// ...to be continued...
@@ 473,7 +500,7 @@
Otherwise, the code is essentially the same as above. In this case, we're passing our
modified parentrecording visitor to the `breadth_first_search()` function. The step
in the solution is to backtrack from the target actor to the parent, printing the
movies that form the citation chain.
+movies that form the chain of costarring actors.
int main(...)
{
@@ 518,7 +545,7 @@
Bacon" game  provided of course that you add a lot more movie data to the simple
data set provided with this example.
[h3 Closing Thoughts]
+[h4 Closing Thoughts]
Notice that this problem can be trivially adapted to the Erd\ös Numbering problem
by simply redefining the semantics of the graph. Instead of actors, each vertex
can represent an author, and each edge connects two authors if and only if both
Added: sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/build.sh
==============================================================================
 (empty file)
+++ sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/build.sh 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
@@ 0,0 +1,18 @@
+
+# This script automates the building of graphs for the quickbook documentation.
+# In order to run this, you will need GraphViz and ImageMagick installed and
+# on path.
+
+# build the movie graph
+echo "building costar graph"
+dot Tpng < movie.dot > movie.png
+convert movie.png resize "80%" movie.png
+
+# build file dependencies
+echo "building file dependency graph"
+dot Tpng < files.dot > files.png
+dot Tpng < reverse.dot > reverse.png
+
+echo "building reverse dependency graph"
+convert files.png resize "80%" files.png
+convert reverse.png resize "80%" reverse.png
Added: sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/files.dot
==============================================================================
 (empty file)
+++ sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/files.dot 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
@@ 0,0 +1,15 @@
+digraph {
+ "undirected_graph.hpp" > "adjacency_list.hpp";
+ "directed_graph.hpp" > "adjacency_list.hpp";
+ "movies.hpp" > "undirected_graph.hpp";
+ "movies.cpp" > "movies.hpp";
+ "movies.cpp" > "tokenizer.hpp";
+ "kevin_bacon.cpp" > "movies.hpp";
+ "kevin_bacon.cpp" > "visitors.hpp";
+ "kevin_bacon.cpp" > "breadth_first_search.hpp"
+ "kevin_bacon.exe" > "movies.cpp"
+ "kevin_bacon.exe" > "kevin_bacon.cpp"
+ "build_order.cpp" > "directed_graph.hpp";
+ "build_order.cpp" > "topological_sort.hpp";
+ "build_order.exe" > "build_order.cpp";
+}
\ No newline at end of file
Added: sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/movie.dot
==============================================================================
 (empty file)
+++ sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/movie.dot 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
@@ 0,0 +1,13 @@
+graph {
+ "Kevin Bacon"  "Lori Singer" [label="Footloose"];
+ "Kevin Bacon"  "Chris Penn" [label="Footloose"];
+ "Lori Singer"  "Tom Hanks" [label="The Man With One Red Shoe"];
+ "Lori Singer"  "Carrie Fisher" [label="The Man With One Red Shoe"];
+ "Lori Singer"  "James Belushi" [label="The Man With One Red Shoe"];
+ "Carrie Fisher"  "Mark Hamill" [label="Star Wars"];
+ "Carrie Fisher"  "John Belushi" [label="The Blues Brothers"];
+ "John Belushi"  "Kevin Bacon" [label="Animal House"];
+ "John Belushi"  "Dan Akroyd" [label="1941"];
+ "Dan Akroyd"  "James Belushi" [label="Trading Places"];
+ "Tom Hanks"  "Tawny Kitaen" [label="Bachelor Party"];
+}
\ No newline at end of file
Added: sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/reverse.dot
==============================================================================
 (empty file)
+++ sandbox/SOC/2007/graphs/libs/graph/doc/quickbook/images/reverse.dot 20070612 12:31:36 EDT (Tue, 12 Jun 2007)
@@ 0,0 +1,15 @@
+digraph {
+ "adjacency_list.hpp" > "undirected_graph.hpp";
+ "adjacency_list.hpp" > "directed_graph.hpp";
+ "undirected_graph.hpp" > "movies.hpp";
+ "movies.hpp" > "movies.cpp";
+ "tokenizer.hpp" > "movies.cpp";
+ "movies.hpp" > "kevin_bacon.cpp";
+ "visitors.hpp" > "kevin_bacon.cpp";
+ "breadth_first_search.hpp" > "kevin_bacon.cpp";
+ "movies.cpp" > "kevin_bacon.exe";
+ "kevin_bacon.cpp" > "kevin_bacon.exe";
+ "directed_graph.hpp" > "build_order.cpp";
+ "topological_sort.hpp" > "build_order.cpp";
+ "build_order.cpp" > "build_order.exe";
+}
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