
BoostCommit : 
Subject: [Boostcommit] svn:boost r72649  trunk/libs/math/example
From: pbristow_at_[hidden]
Date: 20110617 12:59:04
Author: pbristow
Date: 20110617 12:59:03 EDT (Fri, 17 Jun 2011)
New Revision: 72649
URL: http://svn.boost.org/trac/boost/changeset/72649
Log:
new example
Added:
trunk/libs/math/example/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg.cpp (contents, props changed)
Added: trunk/libs/math/example/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg.cpp
==============================================================================
 (empty file)
+++ trunk/libs/math/example/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg.cpp 20110617 12:59:03 EDT (Fri, 17 Jun 2011)
@@ 0,0 +1,325 @@
+// inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg.cpp
+
+// Copyright Thomas Mang 2011.
+// Copyright Paul A. Bristow 2011.
+
+// Use, modification and distribution are subject to the
+// Boost Software License, Version 1.0.
+// (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt
+// or copy at http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
+
+// This file is written to be included from a Quickbook .qbk document.
+// It can still be compiled by the C++ compiler, and run.
+// Any output can also be added here as comment or included or pasted in elsewhere.
+// Caution: this file contains Quickbook markup as well as code
+// and comments: don't change any of the special comment markups!
+
+#include <iostream>
+// using std::cout; using std::endl;
+
+//#define define possible errorhandling macros here?
+
+#include "boost/math/distributions.hpp"
+// using ::boost::math::inverse_chi_squared;
+
+int main()
+{
+ using std::cout; using std::endl;
+
+ using ::boost::math::inverse_chi_squared;
+ using ::boost::math::inverse_gamma;
+ using ::boost::math::quantile;
+ using ::boost::math::cdf;
+
+ cout << "Inverse_chi_squared_distribution Bayes example: " << endl <<endl;
+
+ cout.precision(3);
+// Examples of using the inverse_chi_squared distribution.
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_1
+/*`
+The scaledinversedchisquared distribution is the conjugate prior distribution
+for the variance ([sigma] [super 2]) parameter of a normal distribution
+with known expectation ([mu]).
+As such it has widespread application in Bayesian statistics:
+
+In [@http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayesian_inference Bayesian inference],
+the strength of belief into certain parameter values is
+itself described through a distribution, and parameters
+hence become themselves random variables.
+
+In this worked example, we perform such a Bayesian analysis by using
+the scaledinversechisquared distribution as prior and posterior distribution
+for the variance parameter of a normal distribution.
+
+For more general information on Bayesian type of analyses,
+see:
+
+* Andrew Gelman, John B. Carlin, Hal E. Stern, Donald B. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis,
+2003, ISBN 9781439840955.
+
+* Jim Albert, Bayesian Compution with R, Springer, 2009, ISBN 9780387922973.
+
+(As the scaledinversedchisquared is another parameterization of the inversegamma distribution,
+this example could also have used the inversegamma distribution).
+
+Consider precision machines which produce balls for a highquality ball bearing.
+Ideally each ball should have a diameter of precisely 3000 [mu]m (3 mm).
+Assume that machines generally produce balls of that size on average (mean),
+but individual balls can vary slightly in either direction
+following a normal distribution. Depending on various production conditions
+(e.g. raw material used for balls, workplace temperature and humidity, maintenance frequency and quality)
+some machines produce balls tighter distributed around the target of 3000 [mu]m,
+while others produce balls with a wider distribution.
+Therefore the variance parameter of the normal distribution of the ball sizes varies
+from machine to machine. An extensive survey by the precision machinery manufacturer, however,
+has shown that most machines operate with a variance between 15 and 50,
+and near 25 [mu]m[super 2] on average (or to a standard deviation of 5 [mu]m).
+
+Using this information, we want to model the variance of the machines.
+The variance is strictly positive, and therefore we look for a statistical distribution
+with support in the positive domain of the real numbers.
+Because the expectation of the normal distribution of the balls is known (3000 [mu]m),
+for reasons of conjugacy, it is customary practice in Bayesian statistics
+to model the variance to be scaledinversechisquared distributed.
+
+In a first step, we will try to use the survey information to model
+the general knowledge about the variance parameter of machines measured by the manufacturer.
+This will provide us with a generic prior distribution that is applicable
+if nothing more specific is known about a particular machine.
+
+In a second step, we will then combine the priordistribution information in a Bayesian analysis
+with data on a specific single machine to derive a posterior distribution for that machine.
+
+[h5 Step one: Using the survey information.]
+
+Using the survey results, we try to find the parameter set
+of a scaledinversechisquared distribution
+so that the properties of this distribution match the results.
+Using the mathematical properties of the scaledinversechisquared distribution
+as guideline, and using some trialanderror and calls to the global quantile function,
+we find the set of degrees of freedom df = 20 and scale = 25 [mu]m to be adequate.
+These values df = 20 and scale = 25 are chosen to get a scaled inverse
+chisquared distribution having the properties of most mass between
+15 and 50, and the mode near 25.
+
+We first construct our prior using these values, and then list out a few quantiles.
+
+*/
+ double priorDF = 20.0;
+ double priorScale = 25.0;
+
+ inverse_chi_squared prior(priorDF, priorScale);
+ // Using the inverse_gamma distribution instead, we coudl equivalently write
+ // inverse_gamma prior(priorDF /2, priorScale * priorDF /2);
+
+ cout << "Prior distribution:" << endl << endl;
+ cout << " 2.5% quantile: " << quantile(prior, 0.025) << endl;
+ cout << " 50% quantile: " << quantile(prior, 0.5) << endl;
+ cout << " 97.5% quantile: " << quantile(prior, 0.975) << endl << endl;
+
+ //] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_1]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_1
+/*`This produces this output:
+
+ Prior distribution:
+
+ 2.5% quantile: 14.6
+ 50% quantile: 25.9
+ 97.5% quantile: 52.1
+
+*/
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_1]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_2
+/*`
+Based on this distribution, we can now calculate the probability of having a machine
+with precision <= 15 or > 50.
+For this task, we use calls to the `boost::math::` functions `cdf` and `complement`,
+respectively, and find a probability of about 0.031 (3.1%) for each case.
+*/
+
+ cout << " probability variance <= 15: " << boost::math::cdf(prior, 15.0) << endl;
+ cout << " probability variance <= 25: " << boost::math::cdf(prior, 25.0) << endl;
+ cout << " probability variance > 50: "
+ << boost::math::cdf(boost::math::complement(prior, 50.0))
+ << endl << endl;
+ //] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_2]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_2
+/*`This produces this output:
+
+ probability variance <= 15: 0.031
+ probability variance <= 25: 0.458
+ probability variance > 50: 0.0318
+
+*/
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_2]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_3
+/*`Therefore, only 3.1% of all precision machines produce balls with a variance of 15 or less
+(particularly precise machines),
+but also only 3.1% of all machines produce balls
+with a variance of as high as 50 or more (particularly imprecise machines).
+Only with a probability of just over onehalf (1  0.45793 = 54.2%)
+is the variance actually less than 25.
+
+Notice here the distinction between a
+[@http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayesian_inference Bayesian] analysis and a
+[@http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequentist_inference frequentist] analysis:
+because we model the variance as random variable itself,
+we can calculate and straightforwardly interpret probabilities for the parameter directly,
+which is generally a strict ['mustnot] in the frequentist world.
+
+[h5 Step 2: Investigate a single machine]
+
+In the second step, we investigate a single machine,
+which is suspected to suffer from a major fault
+as the produced balls show fairly high size variability.
+Based on the prior distribution of generic machinery performed (derived above)
+and data on produced balls, we calculate the posterior distribution for that machine
+and use its properties for guidance regarding continued machine operation or suspension.
+
+It can be shown that if the prior distribution
+was chosen to be scaledinversechisquare distributed,
+then the posterior distribution is also scaledinversechisquareddistributed
+(prior and posterior distributions are hence conjugate).
+For more details regarding conjugates and formula to derive the parameters set
+for the posterior distribution see
+[@http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjugate_prior Conjugate prior].
+
+From table of conjugate distributions, the Posterior hyperparameters are given,
+and for the Scaled inverse chisquare distribution
+(and normal likelihood and known mean, and model parameter variance)
+is given by the two expressions given for posterior degrees of freedom and scale:
+
+__spaces [nu] = [nu] + n
+
+which gives the posteriorDF below, and
+
+__spaces [sigma][super 2] = [nu][sigma][super 2] + [Sigma][super n][sub i=1](x[sub i]  [mu])[super 2]/ ([nu] + n)
+
+which after some rearrangement gives the formula for the posteriorScale below.
+
+Machinespecific data consists of 100 balls which were accurately measured
+and show a mean of 25 [mu]m and a variance of 55.
+From this data, and the prior parameterization,
+it follows that the posterior distribution of the variance parameter
+is scaledinversechisquared distribution with df = 120 and scale = 49.54.
+*/
+
+ int ballsSampleSize = 100;
+ cout <<"balls sample Size " << ballsSampleSize << endl;
+ double ballsSampleVariance = 55.0;
+ cout <<"balls sample variance " << ballsSampleVariance << endl;
+
+ double posteriorDF = priorDF + ballsSampleSize;
+ cout << "prior degrees of freedom " << priorDF << endl;
+ cout << "Posterior degrees of freedom " << posteriorDF << endl;
+
+ double posteriorScale =
+ (priorDF * priorScale + (ballsSampleVariance * (ballsSampleSize  1))) / posteriorDF;
+ cout << "Prior scale " << priorScale << endl;
+ cout << "Posterior scale " << posteriorScale << endl;
+
+/*`An interesting feature here is that one needs only to know a summary statistics of the sample
+to specify the posterior parameters: the 100 individual measurements are irrelevant,
+just knowledge of the variance and number of measurements is sufficient.
+*/
+
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_3]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_3
+/*`that produces this output:
+
+
+ balls sample Size 100
+ balls sample variance 55
+ prior degrees of freedom 20
+ Posterior degrees of freedom 120
+ Prior scale 25
+ Posterior scale 49.5
+
+ */
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_3]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_4
+/*`To compare the generic machinery performance with our suspect machine,
+we calculate again the same quantiles and probabilities as above,
+and find a distribution clearly shifted to greater values.
+Indeed, the probability that the machine works at a low variance (<= 15) is almost zero,
+and even the probability of working at average or better performance is negligibly small
+(less than onemillionth of a permille).
+
+On the other hand, with an almost nearhalf probability (49%), the variance is actually
+in the extreme high variance range of > 50.
+
+Based on this information the operation of the machine is taken out of use and serviced.
+*/
+
+ inverse_chi_squared posterior(posteriorDF, posteriorScale);
+
+ cout << "Posterior distribution:" << endl << endl;
+ cout << " 2.5% quantile: " << boost::math::quantile(posterior, 0.025) << endl;
+ cout << " 50% quantile: " << boost::math::quantile(posterior, 0.5) << endl;
+ cout << " 97.5% quantile: " << boost::math::quantile(posterior, 0.975) << endl << endl;
+
+ cout << " probability variance <= 15: " << boost::math::cdf(posterior, 15.0) << endl;
+ cout << " probability variance <= 25: " << boost::math::cdf(posterior, 25.0) << endl;
+ cout << " probability variance > 50: "
+ << boost::math::cdf(boost::math::complement(posterior, 50.0)) << endl;
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_4]
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_4
+/*`This produces this output:
+
+ Posterior distribution:
+
+ 2.5% quantile: 39.1
+ 50% quantile: 49.8
+ 97.5% quantile: 64.9
+
+ probability variance <= 15: 2.97e031
+ probability variance <= 25: 8.85e010
+ probability variance > 50: 0.489
+
+ */
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output_4]
+
+} // int main()
+
+//[inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output
+/*`
+[pre
+ Inverse_chi_squared_distribution Bayes example:
+
+ Prior distribution:
+
+ 2.5% quantile: 14.6
+ 50% quantile: 25.9
+ 97.5% quantile: 52.1
+
+ probability variance <= 15: 0.031
+ probability variance <= 25: 0.458
+ probability variance > 50: 0.0318
+
+ balls sample Size 100
+ balls sample variance 55
+ prior degrees of freedom 20
+ Posterior degrees of freedom 120
+ Prior scale 25
+ Posterior scale 49.5
+ Posterior distribution:
+
+ 2.5% quantile: 39.1
+ 50% quantile: 49.8
+ 97.5% quantile: 64.9
+
+ probability variance <= 15: 2.97e031
+ probability variance <= 25: 8.85e010
+ probability variance > 50: 0.489
+
+] [/pre]
+*/
+//] [/inverse_chi_squared_bayes_eg_output]
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